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Inside this Book – With such claims that every emotion is a matter of (moral) judgment, cogni- tivists highlight that emotions have an evaluative or normative dimension. This normative dimension, they submit, is the main reason why emotions cannot be understood as mere bodily feelings or behavioral reactions. I take it to be a main problem of current noncognitivist and, particularly, embod- ied approaches to emotions that they cannot account for this normative dimension. Yet a theory that cannot account for the normative dimension of emotions falls back beyond the insights that cognitivists already pointed out, beginning in the 1960s. It is therefore the aim of this chapter to recon- struct the normative structure of emotions, and it will be the aim of the chapters that follow to account for it in an embodied framework.
Inside this book –Embodied Emotions PDF Book by Rebekka Hufendiek – Probably the most prominent objection against William James and the “feeling theory” of emotions is that the approach to emotions as feelings of bodily arousal denies the directedness of emotions toward the world, or their intentionality. William James (1884) developed the view that emotions are feelings of bodily arousal. Being afraid means to feel that one’s heart is beating faster, adrenalin is released, and the whole body is trembling. The insights and blind spots of James’s approach are discussed further in the next chapter. Suffice it to say, James and the “feeling theory” have been the favorite opponent of the cognitivist tradition, since it seems that James takes emotions to be bodily feelings without any cognitive dimension. 1 As Solomon puts it, “[f]eelings do not have ‘directions.’ But I am angry ‘about something.’ The relationship between my being angry and what I am angry about is not the contingent relation between a feeling and an object” (Solomon 1973/2003, 4). What is generally true for intentional states of the mind is also true for emotions: the intentional object need not be an external object standing right before our eyes causally triggering the rep- resentation. Emotions can be caused by memories and imaginations or by thoughts about nonexistent entities such as a possible war, and they can have physiological causes, like too much coffee, while still being directed at an external situation. It is therefore important to distinguish between an emotion’s cause and its object: while anger is always directed at an object or a state of affairs, it is not always the object that caused one’s being angry. Anger can be caused by a complex chain of annoying events and simply erupt in a harmless situation, or it can be caused by insufficient sleep and too much coffee but still be directed at somebody’s remark interpreted as a terrible insult.
Embodied Emotions by Rebekka Hufendiek PDF : eBook Information
- Full Book Name – Embodied Emotions
- Author of this Book – Rebekka Hufendiek
- Language – English
- Book Genre – Health, Medical
- Download Format – PDF
- Size – 1.7 MB
- eBook Pages – 202
- Price – Free